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Botox Facts. CA - References

  • Barrientos N, Chana P. Efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A (BOTOX) in the prophylactic treatment of migraine [abstract]. Presented at the American Headache Society 44th Annual Scientific Meeting 2002; 21–23 June: Seattle, Washington.

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  • Binder WJ, Brin MF, Blitzer A, et al. Botulinum toxin type A (BOTOX) for treatment of migraine headaches: An open-label study. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000;123:669-676.



  • Blumenfeld A. Botulinum toxin type A as an effective prophylactic treatment in primary headache disorders. Headache 2003;43:853-860.

  • Borodic GE, Ferrante R. Effects of repeated botulinum toxin injections on orbicularis oculi muscle. J Clin Neuroophthalmol 1992;12:121-127.

  • Brashear A, Gordon MF, Elovic E, et al. Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin for the treatment of wrist and finger spasticity after a stroke. N Engl J Med 2002;347:395-400.

  • Calderon-Gonzalez R, Calderon-Sepulveda RF, Rincon-Reyes M, Garcia Ramirez J, Mino-Arango E. Botulinum toxin A in management of cerebral palsy. Pediatr Neurol 1994;10:284-288.

  • Campanati A, Penna L, Guzzo T, et al. Quality-of-life assessment in patients with hyperhidrosis before and after treatment with botulinum toxin: Results of an open-label study. Clin Ther 2003;25:298-308.

  • Carruthers A, Carruthers J. Botulinum toxin type A: History and current cosmetic use in the upper face. Semin Cutan Med Surg 2001;20:71-84.

  • Carruthers J, Carruthers A. BOTOX use in the mid and lower face and neck. Semin Cutan Med Surg 2001;20:85-92.

  • Carruthers J, Stubbs HA. Botulinum toxin for benign essential blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm and age-related lower eyelid entropion. Can J Neurol Sci 1987;14:42-45.

  • Carruthers J, Lowe JN, Menter MA, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin type A in patients with glabellar lines. Plast Reconstr Surg 2003;15:1089-1098.

  • Carruthers JA, Lowe NJ, Menter MA, et al. A multicentre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of glabellar lines. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002;46:840-849.

  • Carruthers JD. Ophthalmologic use of botulinum A exotoxin. Can J Ophthalmol 1985;20:135-141.

  • De Paiva A, Meunier FA, Molgo J, Aoki KR, Dolly JO. Functional repair of motor endplates after botulinum neurotoxin typ A poisoning: Biphasic switch of synaptic activity between nerve sprouts and their parent terminals. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999;96:3200-3205.



  • Defazio G, Abbruzzese G, Girlanda P, et al. Botulinum toxin A treatment for primary hemifacial spasm: A 10-year multicenter study. Arch Neurol 2002;59:418-420.

  • Dutton J. Acute and chronic effects of botulinum toxin in the management of blepharospasm. In: Therapy with botulinum toxin. Jankovic J, Hallat M, eds. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.; 1994.

  • Dutton JJ, Buckley EG. Botulinum toxin in the management of blepharospasm. Arch Neurol 1986;43:380-382.

  • Fagien S, Brandt FS. Primary and adjunctive use of botulinum toxin type A (Botox) in facial aesthetic surgery : Beyond the glabella. Clin Plast Surg 2001;28 :127-148.

  • Flanders M, Tischler A, Wise J, et al. Injection of type A botulinum toxin into extraocular muscles for correction of strabismus. Can J Ophthalmol 1987;22:212-217.

  • Flynn TC, Carruthers JA, Carruthers JA. Botulinum-A toxin treatment of the lower eyelid improves infraorbital rhytides and widens the eye. Dermatol Surg 2001;27:703-708.

  • Foster L, Clapp L, Erickson M, Jabbari B. Botulinum toxin A and chronic low back pain: A randomized double blind study. Neurology 2001;56:1290-1293.

  • Freund BJ, Schwartz M. A focal dystonia model for subsets of chronic tension headache [abstract]. Cephalalgia 2000;20:433.

  • Göbel H, Lindner V, Krack PK, et al. Treatment of chronic tension-type headache with botulinum toxin [abstract]. Cephalalgia 1999;19:455.

  • Heckmann M, Teichmann B, Pause BM, Plewig G. Amelioration of body odor after intracutaneous axillary injection of botulinum toxin A. Arch Dermatol 2003;139:57-59.

  • Hsiung GY, Das SK, Ranawaya R, Lafontaine AL, Suchowersky O. Long-term efficacy of botulinum toxin A in treatment of various movement disorders over a 10-year period. Mov Disord 2002;17:1288-1293.

  • Huang W, Rogachefsky AS, Foster JA. Brow lift with botulinum toxin. Dermatol Surg 2000;26:55-60.

  • Jankovic J, Schwartz K. Botulinum toxin injections for cervical dystonia. Neurology 1990;40:277-280.

  • Jankovic J, Schwartz KS. Longitudinal experience with botulinum toxin injections for treatment of blepharospasm and cervical dystonia. Neurology 1993;43:834-836.

  • Koman LA, Mooney JF, Mulvaney T, Roberts S, Smith BP. Further evaluation of botulinum A toxin (BOTOX) in the management of cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 1993;69:29-30.

  • Koman LA, Mooney JF III, Smith BP, Goodman A, Mulvaney T. Management of spasticity in cerebral palsy with botulinum A toxin: Report of a preliminary, randomized, double-blind trial. J Pediatr Orthop 1994;14:299-303.

  • Koman LA, Mooney JF III, Smith BP, Walker F, Leon JM. Botulinum toxin type A neuromuscular blockade in the treatment of lower extremity spasticity in cerebral palsy: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Pediatr Orthop 2000;20:108-115.

  • Lennerstrand G, Nordbo OA, Tian S, et al. Treatment of strabismus and nystagmus with botulinum toxin type A: An evaluation of effects and complications. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 1998;76:27-37.

  • Lowe PL, Cerdan-Sanz S, Lowe NJ. Botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of bilateral primary axillary hyperhidrosis: Efficacy and duration with repeated treatments. Dermatol Surg 2003;29:545-548.

  • Magoon EH. Chemodenervation of strabismic children. A 2- to 5-year follow-up study compared with shorter follow-up. Ophthalmology 1989;96:931-934.

  • Mathew NT, Kallasam J, Kaupp A, Meadors L. "Disease modification" in chronic migraine with botulinum toxin type A: Long-term experience [abstract]. Presented at the American Headache Society 44th Annual Scientific Meeting 2002; 21–23 June: Seattle, Washington.

  • Mauskop A. Long-term use of botulinum toxine type A (BOTOX) in the treatment of episodic and chronic migraine headaches. Presented at the American Headache Society 44th Annual Scientific Meeting 2002; 21–23 June: Seattle, Washington.

  • Metaxiotis D, Siebel A, Doederlein L. Repeated botulinum toxin A injections in the treatment of spastic equinus foot. Clin Orthop 2002;394:177-185.

  • Naumann M, Lowe NJ. Botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of bilateral primary axillary hyperhidrosis: A randomized, parallel group, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. BMJ 2001;323:596-599.

  • Naumann M, Lowe NJ, Kumar CR, Hamm H. Botulinum toxin type a is a safe and effective treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis over 16 months: A prospective study. Arch Dermatol 2003;139:731-736.

  • Park MY, Ahn KY, Jung DS. Application of botulinum toxin A for treatment of facial contouring in the lower face. Dermatol Surg 2003;29:477-483.

  • Petitto VB, Buckley EG. Use of botulinum toxin in strabismus after retinal detachment surgery. Ophthalmology 1991;98:509-513.

  • Poungvarin N, Devahastin V, Chaisevikul R, Prayoonwiwat N, Viriyavejakul A. Botulinum A toxin treatment for blepharospasm and Meige syndrome: Report of 100 patients. J Med Assoc Thai 1997;80:1-8.

  • Relja M. Treatment of tension-type headache by local injection of botulinum toxin. Eur J Neurol 1997;4(Suppl 2):S71-S73.

  • Schulte-Mattler WJ, Wieser T, Zierz S. Treatment of tension-type headache with botulinum toxin: A pilot study. Eur J Med Res 1999;4:183-186.

  • Scott AB. Botulinum toxin injection into extraocular muscles as an alternative to strabismus surgery. Ophthalmology 1980;87:1044-1049.

  • Scott AB, Kennedy RA, Stubbs HA. Botulinum A toxin injection as a treatment for blepharospasm. Arch Ophthalmol 1985;103:347-350.

  • Scott AB, Magoon EH, McNeer KW, Stager DR. Botulinum treatment of childhood strabismus. Ophthalmology 1990;97:1434-1438.

  • Silberstein S, Mathew N, Saper J, et al. Botulinum toxin type A as a migraine preventive treatment. Headache 2000;40:445-450.

  • Smuts JA, Baker MK, Smuts HM, et al. Prophylactic treatment of chronic tension-type headache using botulinum toxin type A. Eur J Neurol 1999;6(Suppl 4):S99-S102.

  • Tan NC, Chan LL, Tan EK. Hemifacial spasm and involuntary facial movements. QJM 2002;95:493-500.

  • Tsoy EA, Buckley EG, Dutton JJ. Treatment of blepharospasm with botulinum toxin. Am J Ophthalmol. 1985;99:176-179.

  • Velickovic M, Benabou R, Brin MF. Cervical dystonia: Pathophysiology and treatment options. Drugs 2001;61:1921-1943.

  • Wang A, Jankovic J. Hemifacial spasm: Clinical findings and treatment. Muscle Nerve 1998;21:1740-1747.

  • Wheeler A, Goelkusian A, Gretz S. Randomized, double-blind, prospective pilot study of botulinum toxin injection for refractory unilateral, cervicothoracic, paraspinal, myofascial pain syndrome. Spine 1998;23:1662-1667.

  • Zwart JA, Bovim G, Sand T, et al. Tension headache: Botulinum toxin paralysis of temporal muscles. Headache 1994;34:458-462.